Intel 32 core Processor/CPU

What does a processor do?
A processor is the unit that reads and executes program instructions, which are fixed-length (typically 32 or 64 bit) or variable-length chunks of data. The data consists of number of instructions which specifies the work that is to be done. The instructions are very basic things like reading data from memory or sending data to the user display, but they are processed at a rapid speed that we experience the results as the smooth operation of a program. Processor consists of number of cores depending on it’s design(Dual core, Quad core, Hexa core etc). The number of tasks completed per second depends on these cores, if there is only one core in processor then instructions will be executed one at a time.

Project “Keifer”
Intel has assigned name “Keifer” to the many-core processor project and “Gulftown” specifically to its 32-core processor that will be manufactured using 32nm process(The 32 nm process ‘also called 32 nanometer node’ is the next step after the 45 nanometer process in CMOS semiconductor device fabrication), and it will include eight processing nodes, each with four cores. Each core will run at 2GHz, but since there are 32 of them, processor will run at 64 GHz .

Intel 32 core is base on Sun's UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara) to come up with a radical processor redesign for 2010 that could perform 16 times faster than Woodcrest. This is technical intelligence from within the Borg collective. Keifer is aimed take on Sun’s Niagara which is available in the market as UltraSPARC T1 processor.

Key to Intel's advantage may be clock speed, once again: The company estimates that Niagara III won't be able to run faster than 2.0 GHz - while Keifer will run at least at 2.0 GHz.

Project Niagara

"Niagara" architecture, which is currently available in the "Ultra Sparc T1" processor. The T1 
was launched last year with great fanfare as 1.2 GHz 8-core processor with 3 MB L2 cache and capable of handling a total 32 threads at a peak power of just 72 watts. Sun currently offers the T1 in the T1000 and T2000 server series - rack-mounted 1U and 2U servers with prices ranging from about $3500 to just under $30,000.

32 core Intel Processor
Intel invented a 32 Core Processor which is a parallel working giant that will not require supporting graphics cards for doing its job efficiently and quickly and a new 32-core server chip based on a new high-performance computing server architecture that mixes general x86 cores with specialized cores for faster processing of highly parallel scientific and commercial applications.

The technology is called Many Integrated Core Architecture (MICA) and specially designed for the servers that require a big amount of multiprocessing power with parallel working technology. The prototype designed is based on 22 nanometer pipeline architecture technology on which Intel researched by a dedicated facility and expert team of engineers to produce the giant 32 core processor that looks just like a dedicated PCI Express Graphics Card in physical.

The chip, called Knights Ferry, is Intel's fastest processor ever and delivers more than 500 gigaflops of performance that mixes general x86 cores with specialized cores for faster processing of highly parallel scientific and commercial applications.

The Knight Ferry chip that is the main design base of the processor runs on a dedicated 1.2 GHz clock speed with 32 cores of XEON 7500 type and equipped with L1 and L2 shared cache memory of 8 MB size each, which the company describes as being based on a new "many integrated core" architecture. The Level 1 and Level 2 cache memories are backed by 1 GB or 2 GB sized GDDR5 Hyper Advanced RAM for enhancing the processor power and integrating it with better execution time.

The server processor is not designed for market use as of now; Intel only showcased a prototype of the processor. The technology was just display to give a hunch of the future technology and when it will come in commercial scale, should be upgraded to 50 core super server processor and will target to high end servers and super computers. The price is not announced or decided officially, the launch date of the commercially usable processor is predicted as the early of 2011.

32-core graphics processing engine

Larrabee is Intel's response to Nvidia and AMD graphics processing chips. Larrabee will be, in its first iteration, a 32-core processor. Each core is expected to be an x86 core, and each will will be paired with a vector processing unit. Larrabee will have a shared pool of cache memory and there will be memory interfaces around the edge of the chip.
Intel has made a point of Larrabee's programmability, saying it will be more flexible in use than current dedicated graphics chips.

The idea seems to be that a Larrabee workstation could use the chip for general business applications, mining the humungous x86 application base, as well as power through graphics image rendering tasks. It could also be used for new graphics processing applications because of this flexibility.


The 32-core chip is available for development purposes.

The first commercial product will include more than 50 cores and be called Knights Corner. An Intel spokesman would not say when that chip will be available. However, the chip will be part of the Sandy Bridge chip architecture, manufactured using the 22-nanometer process, and those processors are due to reach laptops and servers in 2011.

The initial 32-core chip is made using the existing 32-nm process. Knights Ferry includes 32 main Xeon chip cores in the server CPU socket, with corresponding 512-bit vector processing units in the PCI-Express slot. The chip runs four threads per core and includes 8MB of shared cache, and up to 2GB of fast GDDR5 memory.

The company will merge the CPU cores and vector units into a single unit as chip development continues, Skaugen said.

The Knights architecture is the biggest server architecture shift since Intel launched Xeon chips, Skaugen said. The chip includes elements of the Larrabee chip, was characterized as a highly parallel, multicore x86 processor designed for graphics and high-performance computing. However, Intel last week said it had cancelled Larrabee for the short term, but said elements of the chip would first be used in server processors, and and later in laptops.

The new architecture could also fend off competition from Nvidia's Tesla and Advanced Micro Devices' FireStream graphics processors, which pack hundreds of computing cores to boost application performance. The graphics processors are faster at executing certain specialized applications. The second fastest supercomputer in the world, Nebulae in China, combines CPUs with GPUs to boost application performance.

The chip will accelerate highly parallel applications, Skaugen said. It could also standardize software development platforms around the x86 architecture, making it easier to recompile programs, Skaugen said.

Intel has many new server chips in the pipeline. Earlier this month, the chip maker said it would release a successor to its eight-core Nehalem-EX chips next year, with more cores and faster speeds. The new chips, code-named Westmere-EX, will be for servers with four or more sockets. The company is also developing an experimental 48-core x86 chip with a mesh design, but has not announced plans to sell it.

Intel already has a significant lead in the HPC market, but the new chip and surrounding architecture could extend its presence. According to the Top500 list, 408 supercomputers -- more than 80 percent of the list -- use Intel's chips, giving it a significant lead over other chip companies like Advanced Micro Devices and IBM.

1 comment:

  1. Talking about processors I need a new one. My computer is so old >_<